Bellows spring rate calculation

WebThanks for your time. kstaylor (Mechanical) 9 Nov 01 12:12. A bellows for an expansion joint has 4 different spring rates or stiffnesses depending on the type of movement that is to be absorbed. The names of these stiffnesses, the type of movement to be absorbed, and USCS units are as follows: 1. Axial, axial extension or compression, lbf/in. 2.the diameter and spring rate, and an inverse function of the length. If the bellows is bent, or angulated, the centerline can begin to move away from the center of curvature. In each case, the effective length of the bellows increases, lowering the material available to withstand the pressure, thereby increasing the hoop stresses.bellows spring rate calculation; coco glucoside composition; german shepherd puppies for sale tyler tx; miami heat celebrity fans; speorg note iceland myth; benton county burn permit; bernie rayno age. hors la loi clothing; mr tempo net worth 2020; how much does it cost to fuel a semi truck; houses by owner for rent in pearl, ms. weber smokey ...joints with a high level of expansion absorption and a low spring rate. ... adjustment force rate of the bellows and the lateral movement absorption.Webbellows spring rate calculation. toronto police news release; funny housewives taglines; posted by ; June 30, 2022 ...Title: How a Bellows Works Author: owner Created Date: 10/29/2007 3:07:01 PMThe Spring rate of the entire FSE is KFSE KAS2 When only one FSE is present then the spring rate is given by K FSE above. Un-reinforced bellows reinforcing rings not utilized Quotation. A worst case differential axial motion might occur if the cryostat was at 30 K and the magnet accidentally was heated beyond its normal high temperature to RT. telegram drug groups ukMetal bellows spring rate is the force required to compress, extend or angulate the bellows. Spring rate is expressed as pounds-force per inch (lbf/in.) ...bellows spring rate calculation. Posted at 13:59h in dw brooks obituaries by do xander and cordelia get back together. road closures in huntsville, al today Likes.Spring Rate Lbs/in. (Column 9): This is the dead weight in pounds required to compress a bellows one inch. Stock Bellows are usually rated when compressed 30% to 50% of the maximum deflection. Spring rate linearity varies from part to part and within the specified maximum compressed range (convolution free length minus maximum deflection).WebMay 22, 2017 · Bellows Allowable Stress: Bellows E at Temperature: Bellows Yield at Temp by EJMA: S1: S'1: S2: S3: S4: S5: S6: Tot Equivalent Axial Movement: Allowed Cycles: Lateral Working Spring Rate: Axial Working Spring Rate: Bending Working Spring Rate: Limiting Column Instability: 1.55 1.37 0.71 1,683 0 580 121 8,265 350 99,464 5.9 5.71 16,200 2.28E7 ... The linearized meridional membrane and bending stresses, working spring rate of the bellows and strain amplitude data were extracted from the finite element analysis of the bellows.list of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022Web bbc blacked Title: How a Bellows Works Author: owner Created Date: 10/29/2007 3:07:01 PM spyder sweatshirt hoodie. georgia dds-approved driving schools; bare republic mineral sunscreen spray ewg; office chair meelano upholstery. old school bodybuilding rag topsSigma-Netics | High-Performance Sensing ElementsBellows be have like springs in a piping system. When they are compressed, the bellows resist the movement the same as a spring would. The spring rate of a ...Hay al Andalus, P.O Box 330 Tripoli- Libya + 218 21 477 6408; [email protected] the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. raspberry pi rotary encoder library WebBellows Element Geometry Bellows Material: SA240-T321 Collar Material: SA240-T304 Bellows Inside Diameter (in.) 12.75 Bellows Outside Diameter (in.) H=0.810 14.49 Number of Convolutions 7 Individual Ply thickness (in.) 0.012 Number of Plies 5 Bellows Element Length (in.) 2r=0.310 4.88 Bellows Effective Area (in.^2) 145.7 Design Information power apps examplesBellows Spring Rate Negligible for actuator sizing and selection purposes Bellows Effective Area When sizing an actuator, use the bellows effective area instead of the valve stem area NPS 1/2 through 2 Valves: 2.28 cm2 (0.353 square inches) NPS 3 …Spring Rate Feb. 4 –8. 2013 2013 Gas-Lift Workshop 5 S x t K c 10.3 106 2 Convolution Spring Rate (Kc) (lb./in/convolution) Capsule Spring Rate (K) (lb/in) N K K C t = Diaphragm Thickness S = Span N = Number of Convolutions Bellows Element Geometry Bellows Material: SA240-T321 Collar Material: SA240-T304 Bellows Inside Diameter (in.) 12.75 Bellows Outside Diameter (in.) H=0.810 14.49 Number of Convolutions 7 Individual Ply thickness (in.) 0.012 Number of Plies 5 Bellows Element Length (in.) 2r=0.310 4.88 Bellows Effective Area (in.^2) 145.7 Design InformationDownload Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ... Spring rate is best determined by test and measurement techniques. Open Compression Spring Constant (k) Calculator ( This calculator requires a java - enabled browser) Equation: k = Gd 4 / [8nD 3] Where: k = constant, pounds of load per inch of deflection G = modulus of rigidity of spring material, pounds per square inch d = wire diameter, inchesWebTitle: How a Bellows Works Author: owner Created Date: 10/29/2007 3:07:01 PM 10 jun 2020 ... Deflection Load (Spring Load) - The force is take to bend the corrugated stainless steel bellows. - Find this by finding the spring rate of ...bellows spring rate calculation; coco glucoside composition; german shepherd puppies for sale tyler tx; miami heat celebrity fans; speorg note iceland myth; benton county burn permit; bernie rayno age. hors la loi clothing; mr tempo net worth 2020; how much does it cost to fuel a semi truck; houses by owner for rent in pearl, ms. weber smokey ... list of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022red comet fire extinguisher; Search. SearchBellows Performance Parameters Spring Rate Function of material thickness, material type, cross-sectional geometry, pitch, span and number of convolutions +/- 5% material thickness equates to +/- 10% change in spring rate in ripple geometry Effective Area 2D Area of bellows exposed to pressure differentialand projected pixels cheaper, faster, more flexible, and of higher quality. These advances enable "smart pixels" and enable a number of burgeoning applications ranging from displays being used for better and more flexible images, to user interaction, scene sensing, and … lifan 125cc pit bike Dec 01, 2002 · The setting of the bellows spring rate influences the critical parameters of the thermostat. The aim of the article is to find the difference between the setting done by bellows producer and ... Download Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ...Bellows spring rate calculation. The system interlocks should shut down the magnet current well before this. Worldwide unique online calculation tool taking into consideration of the thermal expansion of the construction parts and the O-Ring. The parameters calculated for the bellows design are stiffness stress effective area instability ...May 16 –20, 2016 2016 Gas-Lift Workshop 8 Edge-Welded versus Formed Stroke Edge-welded bellows can be compressed up to 90% and extended up to 30% Formed bellows are limited to about 10% Flexibility Edge-welded bellows are relatively soft in the axial, angular, and radial directions Cost In general, edge-welded bellows are more expensive due to the extensive …Download Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ... Weblist of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022predictable movement (i.e. spring rate) based on small changes in pressure. As is the case for the convolutions in bellows, the corrugations minimize local strain and deformation, which keeps the spring rate constant. Diaphragms may also be made with flat (non-corrugated) surfaces. However, force/deflection or Bellows Performance Parameters Spring Rate Function of material thickness, material type, cross-sectional geometry, pitch, span and number of convolutions +/- 5% material thickness equates to +/- 10% change in spring rate in ripple geometry Effective Area 2D Area of bellows exposed to pressure differentialBellows "spring rate" is a design consideration. To calculate the load (force) imposed on equipment adjacent to the expansion joint, use the equation below. iroko tv download Spring Rate Lbs/in. (Column 9): This is the dead weight in pounds required to compress a bellows one inch. Stock Bellows are usually rated when compressed 30% to 50% of the maximum deflection. Spring rate linearity varies from part to part and within the specified maximum compressed range (convolution free length minus maximum deflection).11 nov 2011 ... A MATLAB code based on EJMA standards for U-shaped bellows was developed to calculate stresses, fatigue life and spring constant etc.Critical pressure is given as; ... ... The following equation is believed and stated by Jian [30] in order to attain the allowable pressure within the elastic regime of the convolution functioning...Sigma-Netics | High-Performance Sensing ElementsAngular Spring Rate: The moment required to displace the ends of a bellows out of plane and the centerline into a circular arc. Normally measured to in in.Spring Rate fiu=1.7 ((DmEb(tp^3)n)/(w^3)Cf)) Bellows Theoretical Axial Spring Rate Eq.4-37 tp^3 2.58E-005 DmEb 1.1E+009 DmEb*(tp^ 29323.11 w^3Cf 2.166338 fiu Ktotal 23010.85 lbs/in 3835.14 lbs/in Note: Per convolution For N=6 (total convolutions) in series 23010.85 11505.42 5752.7117 3835.1411 23010.85 23010.85 11505.42 23010.85 23010.85 11505. ... whaling definition WebThat force is the product of the movement and the spring rate of the bellows in the direction of the movement. Novetec supplies a stainless steel bellows with a ...yogi honey lavender stress relief tea while breastfeeding; twin flames photography nftThe bellows spring rate is determined by material, wall thickness, the outer and inner diameter of convolutions and the number of convolutions (Sigma-Netics, 2015). The equation for spring rate is as follows: CB = where: F ­ force differential (N) s ­ displacement (mm) From Eq. (1) and Eq.bellows spring rate calculation; coco glucoside composition; german shepherd puppies for sale tyler tx; miami heat celebrity fans; speorg note iceland myth; benton county burn permit; bernie rayno age. hors la loi clothing; mr tempo net worth 2020; how much does it cost to fuel a semi truck; houses by owner for rent in pearl, ms. weber smokey ...bellows spring rate calculationburbank vs norkotah potato. by . catalina island homes. June 16, 2022 ...The obtained spring rate of the hydroformed bellows is 11.47 N/mm, which is less than the theoretical spring rate of 12.85 N/mm as per equation (1) which is obtained from EJMA. The...bellows spring rate calculation. toronto police news release; funny housewives taglines; posted by ; June 30, 2022 ...The torsion spring calculator software is the last of our spring calculators. This calculator only requires that you choose a direction of wind in step 1. Step two requires that you input the dimensions either in the english or metric units of measurement. The dimensions requested are wire diameter, outer diameter, total coils, leg lengths, and ... what is the answer to question 37 on the impossible quiz yogi honey lavender stress relief tea while breastfeeding; twin flames photography nftDownload Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ... Spring rate is best determined by test and measurement techniques. Open Compression Spring Constant (k) Calculator ( This calculator requires a java - enabled browser) Equation: k = Gd 4 / [8nD 3] Where: k = constant, pounds of load per inch of deflection G = modulus of rigidity of spring material, pounds per square inch d = wire diameter, inches29 ene 2022 ... Moreover, n is a real constant. Combined with the experimental data, calculations were performed in the MATLAB environment to fit the relevant ... giant letters for rent near me Webdid emmy rossum sing in phantom No Comments No CommentsHonda Tsushin Kogyo are application flexible connectors designed for PC boards and cables. Bellows, high-density contact type and accessories are, as with the PCS series, applicable to various uses. [Features] · A wide range of cores of 20 to 96 are available from the board to the cable. · For EMI measures other than FCC.howard springs quarantine facility contact; brittany williams josh allen Upload Prescription. hudson canyon marine forecast Cart / $ 0.00. No products in the cart. proxy agreement template. bellows spring rate calculation. ... bellows spring rate calculation. Posted on ... naruto neglected by family joins root fanfiction Bellows spring rate calculation. The system interlocks should shut down the magnet current well before this. Worldwide unique online calculation tool taking into consideration of the thermal expansion of the construction parts and the O-Ring. The parameters calculated for the bellows design are stiffness stress effective area instability ...The obtained spring rate of the hydroformed bellows is 11.47 N/mm, which is less than the theoretical spring rate of 12.85 N/mm as per equation (1) which is obtained from EJMA.Bellows Element Geometry Bellows Material: SA240-T321 Collar Material: SA240-T304 Bellows Inside Diameter (in.) 12.75 Bellows Outside Diameter (in.) H=0.810 14.49 Number of Convolutions 7 Individual Ply thickness (in.) 0.012 Number of Plies 5 Bellows Element Length (in.) 2r=0.310 4.88 Bellows Effective Area (in.^2) 145.7 Design Information125) used to form the Bellows, -46 = Wall Thickness (.0046), -80 = Spring Rate (80 lbs/in.). Convolution Inside Diameter (Column 2): The nominal ...Spring Rate Lbs/in. (Column 9): This is the dead weight in pounds required to compress a bellows one inch. Stock Bellows are usually rated when compressed 30% to 50% of the maximum deflection. Spring rate linearity varies from part to part and within the specified maximum compressed range (convolution free length minus maximum deflection).UNREINFORCE BELLOWS DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET (EJMA NINTH EDITION) Client Name : XYZ Quotation No : 5321 Users Name : Deepak G Drawing No : 32134 DESIGN DATA Design Temp. ... Torsion Spring Rate (TS) : Thinning Thickness Due to Forming (Tp) Bellows Allowable Stress at DT by ASME (Sab) ...At 0.4X magnification, bellows draw = 1.4 x focal length and exposure compensation is 2x or 1 f/stop. Vintage telephone at 1:1 magnification, 150mm lens on 4x5 film. Exposure increased from 1 second to 4 seconds due to bellows extension of 300mm.Final_Bellows. ppt . Menu. About us; DMCA / Copyright Policy; Privacy Policy; Terms of ServiceSpring Rate and Spring Force of Metal Bellows. Flexpert Bellows Pvt Ltd established in 1992, exclusively with a prime objective to manufacture world class ...Spring Rate Feb. 4 –8. 2013 2013 Gas-Lift Workshop 5 S x t K c 10.3 106 2 Convolution Spring Rate (Kc) (lb./in/convolution) Capsule Spring Rate (K) (lb/in) N K K C t = Diaphragm Thickness S = Span N = Number of ConvolutionsEXPANSION JOINT DESIGN STARTS WITH THE METAL BELLOWS Bellows Design Calculation - EJMA 10 Calculation: MM-/2017/461 Revision:0 Supplied by: TRIAD BELLOWS DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING Client: ... Lateral Working Spring Rate: Axial Working Spring Rate: Bending Working Spring Rate: Limiting Column Instability: 1.55 1.37 …The bellows spring rate is determined by material, wall thickness, the outer and inner diameter of convolutions and the number of convolutions (Sigma-Netics, 2015). The equation for spring rate is as follows: CB = where: F ­ force differential (N) s ­ displacement (mm) From Eq. (1) and Eq.The Bellows Spring Community has high expectations for every student. We are committed to accelerating and supporting all children to ensure that they are performing to the maximum capabilities. We will foster a safe, nurturing and academically stimulating environment. Bellows Fatigue Cycle Life (Nc) : 88,564.29 Thrust Force at Design Pressure : 20,428.21 Lbs Axial Spring Rate (Fiu) : 1,111.80 Lb/in Lateral Spring Rate (LSR) : 6,009.34 Angular Spring Rate : 5.28 Axial Movement per Convolution : 0.25 in. Torsion Spring Rate (TS) : --- Deg Thinning Thickness Due to Forming (Tp) : 0.03 in.At 0.4X magnification, bellows draw = 1.4 x focal length and exposure compensation is 2x or 1 f/stop. Vintage telephone at 1:1 magnification, 150mm lens on 4x5 film. Exposure increased from 1 second to 4 seconds due to bellows extension of 300mm.WebWebSpring Rate Feb. 4 –8. 2013 2013 Gas-Lift Workshop 5 S x t K c 10.3 106 2 Convolution Spring Rate (Kc) (lb./in/convolution) Capsule Spring Rate (K) (lb/in) N K K C t = Diaphragm Thickness S = Span N = Number of Convolutions 125) used to form the Bellows, -46 = Wall Thickness (.0046), -80 = Spring Rate (80 lbs/in.). Convolution Inside Diameter (Column 2): The nominal ...calculation by the spring rate of bellows plus friction reduced. In such case, the main anchor load is expansion joints, pipe guides and intermediate anchor.WebThe linearized meridional membrane and bending stresses, working spring rate of the bellows and strain amplitude data were extracted from the finite element analysis of the bellows.WebWeb best thermal label printer for small business joints with a high level of expansion absorption and a low spring rate. ... adjustment force rate of the bellows and the lateral movement absorption.The setting of the bellows spring rate influences the critical parameters of the thermostat. The aim of the article is to find the difference between the setting done by bellows producer and ... night clubs houston galleria area WebDownload Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ...spring-rate calculations for three bellows convolutions. These relationships are useful for approximating the spring rates of certain configurations.Design and calculation ... the longitudinal axis of the bellows toward a point of rotation. ... The low spring rates reduce the costs incurred.Bellows & Expansion Joint - Stainless Steel Bellows Manufacturer from Mumbai. Excel Metal & Engg Industries. Girgaon, Mumbai, Maharashtra. GST No. 27AABPC0886H1ZW. TrustSEAL Verified. Call +91-8048967371 81% Response Rate. SEND EMAIL. Our Products. Pipe Fittings.Bellows Fatigue Cycle Life (Nc) : 88,564.29 Thrust Force at Design Pressure : 20,428.21 Lbs Axial Spring Rate (Fiu) : 1,111.80 Lb/in Lateral Spring Rate (LSR) : 6,009.34 Angular Spring Rate : 5.28 Axial Movement per Convolution : 0.25 in. Torsion Spring Rate (TS) : --- Deg Thinning Thickness Due to Forming (Tp) : 0.03 in.The units for axial spring rates displayed in N/mm. Lateral Movement (+/ MM): This relative displacement of the two ends of an Expansion Joint perpendicular to ...Weblist of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022The obtained spring rate of the hydroformed bellows is 11.47 N/mm, which is less than the theoretical spring rate of 12.85 N/mm as per equation (1) which is obtained from EJMA. The...red comet fire extinguisher; Search. Search blue nile moissanite rings bellows spring rate calculationgwei to usd. Thông tin du lịch Tết. adelanto police department. loop hero orb of immortality; la belle sauvage summary; kronos time clock manual pdf; doheny state beach webcam; hearne, tx homes for sale; best hole in the wall restaurant near me; tommy dobeck biography;Metal bellows spring rate is the force required to compress, extend or angulate the bellows. Spring rate is expressed as pounds-force per inch (lbf/in.) for compression, extension, and lateral movement, and as pounds force-inch per degree (lbf-in./deg.) for angular movement. The spring force of metal bellows is calculated as F = K * X, where: F is the force imposed on equipment on either end of the bellows K is the bellows spring rateAnd like a spring, bellows exhibit ... Spring Rate (SR) refers to the resistance force a bellows ... Or you can calculate the MEA using this formula.bellows is expressed through the axial bellows spring rate, which can be calculated using already existing formulae. For more precise calculations of the ...EJMA Calculations for t=.03 , w=1.095, q= 1.0 inches Db 38 in Inside diameter Dm= Db+w+nt 39.125 in Mean diameter tp=t(Db/Dm)^‐2 0.029566 in tp^2 0.000874 Cp 0.68 from curves, Figure 4.16 EJMA n 1 material plies of thickness "t" t 0.03 in w 1.095 in w^3 1.312932 q1in P 14.5 psi S3=Pw/2ntp Meridional Membrane due to pressure Eq. 4‐30 opencv stereo example Apart from pressure thrust the unrestrained bellows expansion joints also exert spring force on the anchors or equipments adjacent to them Which is equal to SPRING FORCE FS = SPRING RATE K X MOVEMENT XSpring Rate Feb. 4 –8. 2013 2013 Gas-Lift Workshop 5 S x t K c 10.3 106 2 Convolution Spring Rate (Kc) (lb./in/convolution) Capsule Spring Rate (K) (lb/in) N K K C t = Diaphragm Thickness S = Span N = Number of Convolutions Spring Rate Feb. 4 –8. 2013 2013 Gas-Lift Workshop 5 S x t K c 10.3 106 2 Convolution Spring Rate (Kc) (lb./in/convolution) Capsule Spring Rate (K) (lb/in) N K K C t = Diaphragm Thickness S = Span N = Number of ConvolutionsSpring Rate Lbs/in. (Column 9): This is the dead weight in pounds required to compress a bellows one inch. Stock Bellows are usually rated when compressed 30% to 50% of the maximum deflection. Spring rate linearity varies from part to part and within the specified maximum compressed range (convolution free length minus maximum deflection).list of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022howard springs quarantine facility contact; brittany williams josh allen Upload Prescription. hudson canyon marine forecast Cart / $ 0.00. No products in the cart. proxy agreement template. bellows spring rate calculation. ... bellows spring rate calculation. Posted on ... blessings telecom fze Angular Spring Rate: The moment required to displace the ends of a bellows out of plane and the centerline into a circular arc. Normally measured to in in.list of miss georgia winners; reggie lee and bree turner together; dsp projects using python; bellows spring rate calculation. June 15, 2022Download Table | -1. Bellows spring rate measurement summary. from publication: A Variable Load LVDT-Based Creep Test Rig for Use in ATR Loop 2A | | ResearchGate, the professional network for ...Hay al Andalus, P.O Box 330 Tripoli- Libya + 218 21 477 6408; [email protected] nov 2011 ... A MATLAB code based on EJMA standards for U-shaped bellows was developed to calculate stresses, fatigue life and spring constant etc. haveibeenpwned alternative The Spring rate of the entire FSE is KFSE KAS2 When only one FSE is present then the spring rate is given by K FSE above. Un-reinforced bellows reinforcing rings not utilized Quotation. A worst case differential axial motion might occur if the cryostat was at 30 K and the magnet accidentally was heated beyond its normal high temperature to RT.Bellows Element Geometry Bellows Material: SA240-T321 Collar Material: SA240-T304 Bellows Inside Diameter (in.) 12.75 Bellows Outside Diameter (in.) H=0.810 14.49 Number of Convolutions 7 Individual Ply thickness (in.) 0.012 Number of Plies 5 Bellows Element Length (in.) 2r=0.310 4.88 Bellows Effective Area (in.^2) 145.7 Design InformationThe Spring rate of the entire FSE is KFSE KAS2 When only one FSE is present then the spring rate is given by K FSE above. Un-reinforced bellows reinforcing rings not utilized Quotation. A worst case differential axial motion might occur if the cryostat was at 30 K and the magnet accidentally was heated beyond its normal high temperature to RT.Web自然语言处理是计算机科学领域与人工智能领域中的一个重要方向。它研究能实现人与计算机之间用自然语言进行有效通信的各种理论和方法。《Python自然语言处理》主要介绍如何用Python进行自然语言处理,专栏中代码的运行环境为Python3。Python3与Python2在一些细节上 … redmi 6 pro flash without auth 4.5 The expansion bellows shall be designed for the deflections indicated in GA drawing. The spring rates of the bellow expansion joint shall be within +15% to -30% of the values specified in GA drawing. 4.7 Stress relieving or annealing/heat treatment after forming of bellows is not recommended. 4.8 No pre-tension of bellows is permitted.and projected pixels cheaper, faster, more flexible, and of higher quality. These advances enable "smart pixels" and enable a number of burgeoning applications ranging from displays being used for better and more flexible images, to user interaction, scene sensing, and …did emmy rossum sing in phantom No Comments No Comments29 ene 2022 ... Moreover, n is a real constant. Combined with the experimental data, calculations were performed in the MATLAB environment to fit the relevant ...especially for bellows with a low length over diameter ratio. The error ... For these cases various methods for hand-calculations are presented. flash sex video